The following are the major instances of science fraud/hoax that I know of that took place over the past 100 years:
ANTHROPOLOGY: The Piltdown Man (early hominid played cricket) Hoax of ??? (UK)
ANTHROPOLOGY: The Tasaday fraud (unevolved Stone Age tribe living today) of Manuel Elizalde, Jr (Phillipines)
BIOLOGY: Cloning fraud of Hwang Woo-Suk (South Korea)
BIOLOGY: Jacques Ben Veniste Water-can-remember scam (France)
GEOLOGY: Himalayan fossil fraud (drop-and-find-fossil) of Vishwa Jit Gupta (India)
PHYSICS: Transuranium elements fraud of Victor Ninov (USA)
PHYSICS: Organic Semiconductors fraud of Jan Hendrik Schön (USA)
PHYSICS: Big Bang “Genesis” fraud of John C. Mather (USA)
Now let us identify five appropriate selection criteria on which to grade each fraud:
Artistry and craftsmanship
Degree of difficulty
Whichever judge looks at it, however he or she looks at it, John Mather wins in each category, hands down.
The other point you cannot escape is that fraud by physicists is a relatively recent phenomenon, but they have made up for lost time.
Inspector Gregory: Is there any other point to which you would wish to draw my attention, Mr. Holmes?