Cosmological theories are built on our observational knowledge of the universe. Our entire knowledge of the universe comes from, by and through electromagnetic (EM) waves (Radioastronomy, Infrared Atronomy, Optical Astronomy, X-ray and Gamma Ray Astronomy etc.) Thus it goes without saying that all cosmological theories are built on these truths:

1. Electromagnetic signals travel from a distant object to the Earth at the velocity v = c (the velocity of light.)

2. For these waves, the electric field E and the magnetic field B are orthogonal to the direction of propagation and orthogonal to each other, and bear the relationship E = cB.

3. These signals travel in a straight line.

4. There is no change in frequency as the signal travels.

Some of these ‘truths’ have been called into question, based on various suggested effects on the propagation (“Tired light” is an example.) There are other suggestions of unusual modes of EM waves (solitons etc.). However, these are not the subject of my discussion. This discussion concerns something far more basic: The very nature of electromagnetic phenomena in free space. It is my position that these phenomena have been incompletely understood to begin with, and that EM waves are only a part of EM phenomena. More specifically, I shall talk of two classes of EM phenomena:

E= cB waves or Electromagnetic Waves
E < cB waves or Companion Waves

Let us summarize for the purpose of this discussion how all cosmological theories view space today, electromagnetically speaking:

Space is filled with electromagnetic radiation that obeys E = cB.



Yourself alone. In the Interstellar Space, far away from any objects. So, you are immersed in electromagnetic waves crisscrossing in every direction, in every frequency. According to our present understanding, if you measure the electric field E and the magnetic field B at any frequency and at any pair of orthogonal orientations, they should always obey the relation E = cB.

But there may be in addition interstellar magnetic field, which may or may not be time-varying. For this field, E < cB. Overall then, you expect in some cases to measure E < cB.

So, even without introducing any new considerations, based only on conventional physics and conventional astronomy, E < cB is a possible and likely observation in the Interstellar Space. However, one cannot distinguish these EM field from those of the EM waves. So, as a general condition, what EM phenomena exist out there are not all EM waves! We can say:

Space is filled with electromagnetic energy that obeys E ≤ cB.


Elsewhere I have discussed electromagnetic phenomena in empty space, and presented a universal diagram for such phenomena. Consider it:

Universal Diagram of Free Space EM Phenomena
In this dimensionless diagram, the yellow pushpins represent static magnetic field (0,0) and electromagnetic wave (1,1); the yellow-shaded ordinate indicates time-varying but non-propagating EM fields – as near an electromagnet. The question is: Is the rest of this diagram altogether empty, as the current lore holds?
Where does, for example, Low Frequency Magnetic Communication (an established technology) fit in? It is the blue pushpin. Where does superluminal near field of an antenna fall? The red pushpin. Where does Lewey Gilstrap’s elestrostatic communication (see Appendix) fall? It is the green pushpin. But all the three pushpins have been placed arbitrarily. So you can move them around arbitrarily. Thus you can create red, blue and green clouds in the empty space of the diagram. These clouds can fill the available space.
Now continue this process of thinking!

You should now arrive at a general picture of space as follows:

Space is filled with electromagnetic energy with a wide range of relationship between E and B.

Have there been any attempts to detect EM energy propagating with E ≠ cB in free space? Never. Is it possible to do so? Yes.

Take these points in. We will return to this discussion later.



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